A short guide to terms describing the main types of cyber and data privacy risks and incidents taking place today.
- Cyber attack – a malicious attempt to damage, disrupt or gain unauthorised or illegal access to computer systems, networks or devices
- Cyber warfare – the actions by a nation-state or international organisation to attack and attempt to damage or destroy another nation’s computers or information networks.
- Cyber espionage – the stealing of secrets stored in digital formats or on computers and IT networks.
- Data breach – an incident in which data, computer systems or networks are accessed or affected in unauthorised or illegal manner.
- Data leak – the transfer of sensitive or confidential information to unauthorised parties within or outside the organisation.
- Data loss – the process in which information is destroyed by failure or neglect in transmission, processing or by cybercriminal hands.
A more comprehensive cyber glossary can be found on the UK’s Get Safe Online programme.